Latest Next Gernation processor Technology 2022

Newly launched CPUs are being scrutinized for how they interact with embedded apps?

We hear from Jim about the diverse range of embedded board and system hardware platforms that come from Intel’s 2nd generation Core processor family, and how this technology can help meet the requirements for industrial computer systems that have to balance performance, platform security, and video, graphics, among others.

Computing embedded in devices

TECHNOLOGY BY JIM RENEHAN TRENTON

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How do processors newly arriving on the market compare to embedded apps?

The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the 2nd generation Intel Core processor family’s plethora of embedded board and system hardware platforms as well as how this technology can address the processing, platform security, video, graphics, and power requirements of today’s industrial computer systems.

Our collective lives are so often focused on how the latest and greatest processors and chips will simplify our lives that we often ignore what is being discussed regarding specific advances in CPU technology. Technology may have jaded us, but it’s more likely that we’re overwhelmed by information. Our lives are often so busy that we are unable to digest the full implications of advancements in processor technology and their practical application to embedded computing applications.

 Here we will examine the technical merits of Intel’s new next-generation processor family, known as Sandy Bridge (see Figure 1). Intel introduced the first series of Sandy Bridge chips and chipsets earlier this year (formerly called Cougar Point). In this article, we will delve into the inner workings of these new processors and learn how some of their features, as well as some of the basic differences in their design, can enhance embedded computing solutions.

A great deal of talk has been going on lately about the “2nd generation Intel® CoreTM processor family.” Some of it is simply hype. A major redesign of the Sandy Bridge processor is expected to improve the performance, power efficiency, and platform security of single board computers, embedded motherboards, and industrial computers. Several of the Sandy Bridge micro-architecture features can be adapted to industrial computing solutions in Mil-COTS applications, medical imaging, and industrial automation applications.

 In industrial applications, medical imaging, and industrial automation systems, Sandy Bridge microarchitecture is ideally suited to take full advantage of the many features it offers. In the new generation of processors and chipsets, there are a variety of new embedded computing boards that are on the market or will be introduced soon. Several embedded computing platforms are taking advantage of the features of the 2nd generation Intel® CoreTM processor family including SHB Express® (PICMG® 1.3), COM Express® (Figure 2), CompactPCI®, and OpenVPX®.

Clock speed

In a CPU, instructions are processed via a single repeating signal – the clock – which synchronizes the movement of data within the machine.

Formerly, it was relatively easy to measure a processor’s performance by looking at its clock frequency (also known as its clock speed or clock rate). Nowadays, that’s not the case.

It is determined by the signaling voltage and transistor design what the maximum clock frequency will be. A clock that is running too fast will cause internal buses to change states too quickly and will result in numeric codes not being read correctly.

Overview of processors and chipsets

The Intel® CoreTM processors of the second generation are available in several versions. There are some available now, and others will begin rolling out within the next 12 months. In addition to the wide variety of processors and chipsets available for the new generation, each with unique capabilities that can enhance specific embedded computing solutions, it’s important to remember that these new hardware systems feature a variety of processors and chipsets. Because some features come at an application cost with this 2nd generation architecture, it is imperative that we understand the various processors and chipsets available. These lower power ratings come at the cost of lower CPU frequencies, fewer cores, and less cache, which is why the Intel® CoreTM i7-2610UE and Intel® CoreTM i7-2655LE are better suited to small form factor motherboards such as processor AMCs and EPIC motherboards. During the system design phase of your project, you need to keep these factors in mind.

The Intel® CoreTM i7-2600 desktop processor and some future Intel® Xeon® advanced server processors may rate over 3.4 GHz with their base core speeds and Intel® Hyper-Threading, but their TDP ratings are approaching 95 W. The Intel® CoreTM i7-2600 desktop processor and some future Intel® Xeon® advanced server processors may rate over 3.4 GHz with their base core speeds and Intel® Hyper-Threading, but their TDP ratings are approaching 95 W.

A 32nm process is used

The new processor technology features twice as many transistors per CPU die as its predecessor. It may lead to improved processing capabilities, but it can increase the amount of heat generated on the die as well. This basic law of physics has been overcome by new power handling improvements to produce some outstanding performance-per-watt system testing results.

Latest Next Gernation processor 2022 (1)

Reordering and improving processor dies

It has been reordered so that the memory interface, the processing cores, and the Northbridge functions can be tightly integrated. In addition to increasing bandwidth, this reordering reduces latencies. By improving the efficiency of processor access to memory cache, system improvements can be achieved without necessarily increasing on-die heat. The CPU’s execution units can now handle two concurrent processor loads when decoding micro-operations can be buffered on the processor die. These changes to the architecture of Intel’s 2nd generation CoreTM processors have resulted in an overall performance increase.

Additional features of the processor

  1. On most versions of Intel’s 2nd generation CoreTM processor, the following features are available:
  2. Multiple video interfaces can be supported by the enhanced graphics controller.
  3. AVX (Intel® Advanced Vector Extension) doubles the vector width, which can benefit many applications by providing a 2x performance increase.
  4. SSE can also be extended to 256 bits.
  5. Through Intel® AMT 7.0, Intel® VT, and Intel® TXT, platform security and remote management capabilities have been increased.
  6. In addition to ECC memory support, Intel’s second-generation CoreTM processors offer advanced server configurations.
  7. The PCH and the processor both provide more PCIe 2.0/1.1 links.

technology to work

Then you ask, “Great, but why should I careThe question is “How can the latest processor technology be beneficial to my embedded computing applications?”.applications?applications?.” Both are valid questions, and in some cases the latest processor technology may not be necessary. As long as your current system solution is running smoothly, there is no reason to change it. Embedded board resources are being increasingly squeezed by application software, platform security, network interfaces, and video/graphics demands. Additionally, everybody strives to make their system designs more efficient in terms of power consumption. In the previous section, we saw that the second generation of Intel® CoreTM processors addresses all of these concerns to some degree or another.

It might be more accurate to ask, “Is there an embedded single board computer system form factor with any of these new processors?” design? design? ” There are many computing system form factors available today, all of which require embedded boards that meet specific application requirements. A wide range of vendors offer a number of different board formats (3U CompactPCI for instance – see Figure 4) that support the 2nd generation of Intel CoreTM processors and the related platform controller hub. Low-power and lower-end processors are available on some boards. Other systems support higher-end CPUs that consume more power while delivering more functionality.

Latest Next Gernation processor 2022

Conclusion

Sandy Bridge has quite a few features and capabilities that make it a promising processor architecture for embedded computing applications. Multiple videos and graphics displays can be supported, extensive PCI Express interfaces can be directly connected to the processor, power is saved, and throughput is increased, which all bode well for future industrial computer design. There are a variety of single-board computer form factors available for integration into different systems. The advances in processor and embedded computer board technology will benefit areas such as Government & Defense, Communications, and Medical.

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